Osmanlı’nın bağımlı ve haraçgüzar devletleri
The Ottomans had a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons. Some of these states served as buffer states between the Ottomans and Christianity in Europe or Shi’ism in Asia. Their number varied over time.
There were many forms of vassal and tributary states. At Tujue, we have made the following categories:
> Autonomous eyalets
Some states within the eyalet system included sancakbeys, who were local to their sanjak or who inherted their position. They were permitted to elect their own leaders or were de facto independent eyalets.
> Vassal States
Outside of the eyalet system were states which paid tributie to the Ottomans and over which the Porte had the right to nominate or depose the ruler, garrison rights, and foreign policy control. They were considered by the Ottomans as part of Dar al-‘Ahd, thus they were allowed to preserve their self-rule, and were not under Islamic law, like the empire proper; Ottoman subjects, or Muslims for that matter, were not allowed to settle the land permanently or to build mosques.
There were also secondary vassals who were (at least nominally) vassals of the khans of Crimea, or some Berbers and Arabs who paid tribute to the North African beylerbeyis, who were in turn Ottoman vassals themselves.
> Tributary States
Some states paid tribute for the entirety of their territory and recognized Ottoman suzerainty. Some states paid tribute for possessions that were legally bound to the Ottomans, but not possessed by the Ottomans such as the Habsburgs for parts of Royal Hungary or Venice for Zante.
> Autonomous states
During the nineteenth century, as Ottoman territory receded, several breakaway states from the Ottoman Empire had the status of vassal states, before gaining complete independence. They were however de facto independent, including having their own foreign policy and their own independent military.
List of vassal and tributary states
1396–1397 Principality of Wallachia
1417–1859 Principality of Wallachia
1456–1457 Principality of Moldavia
1478–1774 Crimean Khanate
1503–1859 Principality of Moldavia
1521–1551 Khanate of Kazan
1878–1908 Principality of Bulgaria