كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام (Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam) / Açe Darüsselam Sultanlığı

The Sultanate of Aceh was an Islamic kingdom centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh and namesake of this sultanate. It was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire from 1569 until1903 and major regional power in the 16th and 17th centures, before experiencing of long period of decline. At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate of Johor and Portuguese-controlled Malacca, both on the Malayan Peninsula, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success. In addition to its considerable military strength, the court of Aceh became a noted centre of Islamic scholarship and trade.

History

The Sultanate was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. His conquests included Deli, Pedir, Pasai and attacked Aru. His son Alauddin al-Kahar (d. 1571) extended the domains farther south into Sumatra, but was less successful in his attempts to gain a foothold across the strait, though he made several attacks on both Johor and Malacca, with the support along with men and firearms from Süleyman the Magnificent. The Ottomans sent a relief force of 15 Xebecs commanded by Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis.

In early 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital after the palace was captured on 31 January, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh. During this time, many Acehan politicians sought aid from the Ottoman Empire. Their efforts were futile, but they did serve to inspire resistance movements across south-east Asia. Local resistance in northern Sumatra then passed to the local lords and potentates, and then to the religious leaders.